LIST OF CHEIF MINISTERS OF SIKKIM
|Kazi Lhendup Dorjee||16 May 1975||18 August 1979||
Indian National Congress
|President's Rule||18 August 1979||18 October1979|
|02||Nar Bahadur Bhandari||18 October1979||11 May 1984||
Sikkim Jsnsts Psrishad
|03||Bhim Bahadur Gurung||11 May 1984||25 May 1984||
Indian National Congress
|President's Rule||25 May 1984||08 March 1985|
|04||Nar Bahadur Bhandari ||08 March 1985||17 June 1994||Sikkim Sangram Psrishad|
|05||Sanchaman Limboo||17 June 1994||12 December 1994||Sikkim Sangram Psrishad|
|06||Pawan Kumar Chamling||12 December 1994||
|Sikkim Democratic Front|
ELECTED POLITICAL OFFICIALS OF SIKKIM
Lok Sabha members of Sikkim
|S.NO.||CONSTITUENCY||NAME OF MEMBER||PARTY|
|01||Sikkim||Prem Das Rai||Sikkim Democratic Front|
Rajya Sabha members of Sikkim
Sikkim Democratic Front
Sikkim is a landlocked state of India situated amidst the Himalayas. It is the least populous state in India, and the second smallest in area after Goa. Sikkim was an independent state ruled by the Chogyal monarchy until 1975, when a referendum to make it India's twenty-second state succeeded. The thumb-shaped state borders Nepal in the west, China to the north and east, and Bhutan in the south-east. The Indian state of West Bengal borders Sikkim to its south. Gangtok is the capital. With 50,000 inhabitants, Gangtok is the state's only significant town. Despite its tiny size, Sikkim is geographically diverse, owing to its location at the Himalayan foothills. Terrain ranges from tropical in the south to tundra in the north. Kanchenjunga, the world's third highest peak, is located in Sikkim, straddling its northern border with Nepal. The state has twenty-eight mountain peaks, twenty-one glaciers, 227 high altitude lakes, including the Tsongmo Lake, Gurudongmar and Khecheopalri Lakes, five hot springs, and over 100 rivers and streams. Eight mountain passes connect the state to Tibet, Bhutan and Nepal. Sikkim has become one of India's most visited states owing to its reputation for untouched scenic beauty and political stability.
The capital city of Sikkim is now a sprawling urban settlement. Quaint pagoda-roofed houses and colorful monasteries teeming with red-robed lamas sum up Gangtok for you.
Only 24kms from Gangtok, the magnificent monastery is one of the biggest tourist attractions in Gangtok. It is the residence of 16th Gyalwa Karmapa. It houses some of the world's most unique religious scriptures and religious art objects.
Some 40kms from Gangtok, Tosmgo is a tranquil lake surrounded by frozen hillsides. A drive further uphill would take you to the Nathula Pass, which gives you a bird's eye view of Indo-China frontier. Mind it, entry is restricted for foreign nationals.
In the western district of Sikkim, Pemyangtse is a picture perfect destination. It offers a breathtaking view of the world's 3rd highest peak of Mount Kanchendzonga. The little place is home to a number of tourist attractions in Gangtok, namely.
It is one of the oldest monasteries in Sikkim, located on a hilltop at a height of 6840 ft. Apart from it, there are many other monasteries Pelling like: Sangachoeling Monastery, Dabdi Monastery, Tashiding Monastery and so on.
The sacred lake has crystal clear water. They say that the birds do not permit even a single leaf to float on the lake surface.
Sikkim is a lot like Singapore as far as festivals and their celebrations go. While the three ethnic races- the Bhutia, the Lepchas and the Nepalese- all have their own traditional festivals, it is common for the people of Sikkim to take part in each others' festivals with uninhibited gusto. The rich tapestry of intermingling cultures is not only a great reflection of social harmony and bonding, but also results in a bustling calendar of festivals and events. Its colourful festivals depict a rich cultural heritage with deep cultural roots.
Amongst the more famous ones are :
Maghe Sankranti Mela (January)-
This takes place on 13-15 January on the first day of Magh. People are in a carnival mood thronging the colourful local 'melas' or fairs held at several places like Saramsa, Singtam and Jorethang.
Guthor Chaam at Rumtek Monastary & Pemayangtse Monastery(February-March)-
Performed two days prior to Losar or the Tibetan New Year, this Chaam or dance depicts the battle between good and evil and the ritualized destruction of evil.
Lossar is the Tibetan New Year festival that falls in the month of February & is marked with lot of gaiety & festivities at home with family gatherings & in monasteries.
Bhumchu at Tashiding
The Bhumchu, which takes place on the 14th and 15th days of the 1st Month of the lunar calendar corresponding to Feb-March, is one of Sikkim's most intriguing festivals. The water contained in the sacred bhumpa or vase used by Guru Padmasambhava is measured out into 21 cups of equal measure. The level of water is studied to divine the fortunes of Sikkim for the next year. Devotees from Nepal, Bhutan and the neighbouring hills all come for a taste of the sacred water. The vase is replenished with river water & sealed at the end of the festival to be opened only in the next Bumchu.
This Buddhist festival falls on the 15th day, full moon of the 4th Tibetan month and is the Triple Blessed Festival that celebrates the birth, enlightenment and nirvana of Lord Buddha. You can get the blessings of the Holy Scriptures that are carried in procession by monks, students and devotees in most of the important monasteries.
This commemorates Buddha's first teaching of the Four Noble Truths on the 4th day of the 6th month of the lunar calendar. The main monasteries conduct prayers.• Truth of suffering • Truth of the origin of suffering Karma & delusion & their causes. • Truth is the cessation of the suffering or the attainment of Nirvana. • Truth of the “Eight fold path” leading to Nirvana.
Tendong Lho Rum Faat (August)-
On 8th August, the Lepchas worship Mount Tendong which they believe saved their race from destruction by a great flood. While Lepcha 'bongthings' or priests worship Mt. Tendong in South Sikkim, in Gangtok, the Lepchas take part in day-long literary and cultural programmes in all their traditional costumes.
Pang Lhabsol is the festival dance in worship of Dzo-nga, the personification of Mt. Khangchendzonga on the 15th day of the 7th month of the lunar calendar. This festival is unique to Sikkim wherein the gods are called upon to witness the reiteration of the faith of the people of Sikkim. This festival marks the signing of the “Treaty of Brotherhood” between the Lepchas & Bhutias by “Khye Bhumsa” & “Thekong Tek”. You will also see the spectacular 'Pangtoed' or warrior dance that is unique to Sikkim. Earlier this used to be celebrated at Tsuklakhang, the Royal Chapel at Gangtok but since its discontinuation there, Ravangla in South Sikkim comes alive during Pang Lhabsol.
This showcases the most important festival of the Nepalese Hindus, held on the first day of the bright half of the lunar month of Aswin to commemorate the victory of good over Evil. The elders of the family apply “Tika” a red powder mark on the forehead of the younger ones & bless them. Goddess Durga is propitiated with sacrifices. Tyohar, coinciding with Diwali, is also celebrated soon after, with traditional caroling called 'Bhailo' and 'Deusi'.
December–January-Kagyed Dances at Old Rumtek, Lingdum and Phodong monasteries on the 28th and 29th Days of the 10th month where themes from Buddhist mythological are enacted and there is a symbolic burning of the forces of evil and inviting an auspicious new year.
The famous Bhutia festival marks the end of the harvest season & also the end of the Tibetan year during the month of December or January. Chaam (ceremonial dance) held at the monasteries at Tsuklakhang, Phodong & Rumtek, archery competitions & other festivities at home with family gatherings mark the occasion. The ritual dance symbolizes the exorcising of the evil spirits of the year & the welcoming of the good spirits of the New Year.
The Flower Festival is held year round at the White Hall complex at Gangtok where orchid lovers are inexorably drawn towards the semi permanent orchid display. Competitions are held in various categories around March-May when all the orchids, rhododendrons, gladioli, magnolias and other flowers are in full bloom and at the height of their glory. Sikkim Tourism is working towards making this an international flower festival in the year 2008 around March-May. The collective charms of orchids, roses, alpine plants, and other beauties from the plant kingdom will mesmerize you at the Flower Show. There is a large glass house that hosts the flower show. The small artificial stream complete with a rustic eco-friendly bridge in the centre of the Flower Show will fascinate kids. Centre stage, of course, is hogged by the orchids alone. Fish dart out like quicksilver when not hiding in the murkier corners. You can even buy plants to take home. A food festival is also held during the tourist season. Namchi in South Sikkim also hosts a similar Flower festival.