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Friday, 12 October 2012

PUNJAB

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PUNJAB

PUNJAB

CAPITAL-CHANDIGARH

LIST OF CHEIF MINISTERS OF PUNJAB

#
Name
Took Office
Left Office
Political Party
01
Dr. Gopi Chand Bhargava 15 August 1947 13 April 1949
Indian National Congress
02
Bhim Sen Sachar 13 April 1949 18 October 1949
Indian National Congress
03
Dr. Gopi Chand Bhargava 18 October 1949 20 June 1951
Indian National Congress
President's rule 20 June 1951 17 April 1952
04 Bhim Sen Sachar 17 April 1952 23 January 1956
Indian National Congress
05 Pratap Singh Kairon 23 January 1956 21 June 1964
Indian National Congress
06 Dr. Gopi Chand Bhargava 21 June 1964 07 July 1964
Indian National Congress
07 Ram Kishan 07 July 1964 05 July 1966
Indian National Congress
  President's rule 05 July 1966 01 November 1966
08 Giani Gurmukh Singh Mussafir 01 November 1966 08 March 1967
Indian National Congress
09 Justice Gumam Singh 08 March 1967 25 November 1967
Shiromani Akali Dal
10 Lachhaman Singh Gill 25 November 1967 23 August 1968
Shiromani Akali Dal
  President's rule 23 August 1968 17 February 1969
11 Justice Gumam Singh 17 February 1969 27 March 1970
Shiromani Akali Dal
12 Parkash Singh Badal 27 March 1970 14 June 1971
Shiromani Akali Dal
  President's rule 14 June 1971 17 March 1972
13 Giani Zail Singh 17 March 1972 30 April 1977
Indian National Congress
  President's rule 30 April 1977 20 June 1977
14 Parkash Singh Badal 20 June 1977 17 February 1980
Shiromani Akali Dal
  President's rule 17 February 1980 06 June 1980
15 Darbara Singh 06 June 1980 10 October 1983
Indian National Congress
  President's rule 10 October 1983 29 September 1985
16 Surjit Singh Bamala 29 September 1985 11 June 1987
Shiromani Akali Dal
  President's rule 11 June 1987 25 February 1992
17 Beant Singh 25 February 1992 31 August 1995
Indian National Congress
18 Harcharan Singh Brar 31 August 1995 21 January 1996
Indian National Congress
19 Rajinder Kaur Bhattal 21 January 1996 12 February 1997
Indian National Congress
20 Parkash Singh Badal 12 February 1997 26 February 2002
Shiromani Akali Dal
21 Amarinder Singh 26 February 2002 01 March 2007
Indian National Congress
22 Parkash Singh Badal 01 March 2007 Present
Shiromani Akali Dal

ELECTED POLITICAL OFFICIALS OF PUNJAB

Lok Sabha members of Punjab

# NAME OF MEMBERS PARTY
01 Gurdaspur None
02 Amritsar >None
03 Khadoor Sahib None
04 Jalandhar SC
05 Hoshiarpur SC
06 Anandpur Sahib None
07 Ludhiana None
08 Fatehgarh Sahib SC
09 Faridkot SC
10 Firozpur None
11 Bathinda None
12 Bangrur None
13 Patiala None

Rajya Sabha members of Punjab

# NAME OF MEMBERS PARTY
01 Ashwani Kumar Indian National Congress
02 Sukhdev Singh Dhindsa Shiromani Akali Dal
03 M. S. Gill Indian National Congress
04 Naresh Gujral Shiromani Akali Dal\
05 Avinash Rai Khanna Bharatiya Janata Party
06 Ambika Soni Indian National Congress
07 Balwinder Singh Bhunder Shiromani Akali Dal

FOOD

DRESS

OCCUPATION

The economy of Punjab is characterized by a productive, increasingly commercial agriculture, a diversity of small- and medium-scale industries, and the highest per capital income in the nation. Wheat and cotton are the principal crops. Live- stock and poultry are also raised in large numbers. Industries with the largest number of workers include cotton, woollen and silk textiles, metal products and machinery, food and beverages, and transport equipment and parts. Others: hosiery, bicycles, sewing machines, and sporting goods.

IMPORTANT PLACE

Amritsar-

Amritsar was founded in 1577 by Guru Ram Das, the fourth guru of Sikhs. It’s the spiritual capital of the Sikhs and gained its name, meaning "Holy Pool of Nectar", from the body of water around the Golden Temple. The exquisite Golden Temple attracts pilgrims from all over the world. It looks particularly arresting at night when it’s beautifully lit up, with its imposing pure gold dome illuminated.

Wagah Border-

Everyday of the year, just before sunset, a flag lowering ceremony takes place at the Wagah Border between India and Pakistan. The Wagah Border ceremony is a popular tourist attraction and side trip from Amritsar. The ceremony lasts for around 45 minutes in total. It starts with high patriotic spirits from sides of the border. Soldiers march towards the gate at the border, which is thrown open when they reach there.

Kila Raipur-

Located not far from Ludhiana, the small village of Kila Raipur hosts the Rural Olympics every February. This spectacle has earned world-wide recognition. Bullocks, camels, dogs, mules, and other animals competing in highly professional events must be seen to be believed! The adrenaline-pumping bullock cart race is the main attraction. However, the chance to see some really off-beat activities is the hugest draw card.

Patiala-

Patiala is the place to come to explore the royal Punjab of the past. Once one of India's richest princely states, Patiala offers a glorious insight into the history of 18th and 19th century Punjab, particularly the Malwa region. You'll be greeted by opulent palace buildings, gardens and parks.Don't miss the Moti Bagh Palace which houses an excellent art gallery, and the imposing 10 acre Qila Mubarak complex with its series of palaces, inner fort, and audience hall. Patiala is also famous for the generous Patiala peg of whiskey, Salwar suits with loose pants, pagdi (traditional turban), and paranda (colorful hair decorations for women). Slip-on leather footwear, known as the Patiala jutti, is another hot item.

Anandpur Sahib-

The village of Anandpur Sahib, around 2 hours from Chandigarh, has been an important pilgrimage place for Sikhs for hundreds of years. Known as the "Holy City of Bliss", it was the birth place of the Khalsa (Sikh brotherhood). The historical gurdwaras (temples) are magnificent, along with the surroundings. Anandpur Sahib is flanked by a 17th century fortress, and framed between a towering mountain range and river.Visit during Baisaki to catch the carnival like celebrations that take place there. However, the most impressive display of Sikh fearlessness can be seen during Hola Mohalla, held on Holi. Instead of throwing colored powder, be prepared for testosterone fueled mock battles featuring sticks, knives, axes and swords.

Kurukshetra-

160 km away from Delhi along the national highway NH1, it is the battle ground between the Pandavas and the Kauravas as mentioned in the great Indian epic the Mahabharata.This is where, Lord Krishna inculcated Arjuna, the lessons of Karma and Dharma, which took shape in the Bhagwat Gita.

Golden Temple-

The world's most renowned Sikh pilgrimage is one of the most prominent tourist attractions in Punjab. The edifice of gold-laden dome and the marble base enshrine the holy script of Guru Granth Sahib. It took 400kg of gold leaves to cover it. The architecture showcases an exquisite blend of Hindu and Islamic style.

Jallianwallah Bagh-

This is an important landmark in the history Indian Freedon Struggle. It commemorates the death of hundreds of men, women and children who were murdered by the ruthless firing by the British Police in 1919. The bullet marks are still alive on the boundary walls.

Sheesh Mahal-

It is a beautiful palace built by Maharaja Narinder Singh with terraces, gardens, fountains and an artificial lake. The in-house gallery displays antique paintings, bronzes, sculptures and portraits of the Maharajas of Patiala.

Wagha Border-

This is the border of India and Pakistan. In the evening, the change of guard among the Indian Border Security Forces is an enchanting spectacle.

LANGUAGE

  • Punjabi
  • Hindi
  • Urdu

FESTIVALS

Holi-

Holi is indeed one of the most famous festivals of Punjab. The Sikh community of Punjab celebrates the `festival of colors`, Holi. In the state of Punjab this festival is popularly `Hola Mohalla`. This festival also provides them with an opportunity to exhibit their martial arts especially `kushti`. Fun and frolic are also redefined in various forms in the festive celebrations here. People greet each other with colors and thus enhance the feeling of harmony due to which happiness prevails. Mouthwatering sweetmeats are an essential part of the festivities.

Baisakhi-

The festival of Baisakhis is a very important one for the Punjabis in the state of Haryana and is celebrated with joyous music and dancing. It falls every year on 13th April and once in 36 years it falls on 14th April. It was on this particular day that the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, better known as Guru Gobind Singh founded the Khalsa in the year 1699. The Sikhs on this day visits the Gurdwaras and listen to Kirtans. After the religious rites and traditions get over sweetened semolina is served to the masses. The function ends with `langar` or the community lunch. Mock duels and bands playing religious tunes form part of the processions. This festival is also marked as the last opportunity for relaxing before they start harvesting of corn.

Lohri-

Lohri is celebrated in the state of Punjab just before the day of Makar Sankranti and is one of the most celebrated festivals of Punjab. For the community of Punjabis the festival of Lohri is a very special festival. This auspicious and joyous festival celebrates fertility and the spark of life. The religious rites and traditions are observed with great devotion. All the locals gather round the bonfire throw sweets, puffed rice and popcorn into the flames. They also indulge themselves in merriment by singing songs and exchanging greetings. The first Lohri of a newly wedded bride and newly born child is extremely important.

Maghi-

The festival of Maghi comes just the day after the Lohri festival and is very popular with the entire Punjabi community. The locals go for a holy dip and give away a lot in charity. The special delicacies of this festival include kheer cooked in sugarcane juice. This festival in fact commemorates the heroic fight of the Chali Mukte or the Forty Liberated Ones who sacrificed their own lives to save the life of Guru Gobind Singh. Fairs are held in many regions of the state to observes the festival with much color and exuberance.

Diwali-

Diwali is one of the most special festivals of Punjab. In fact Diwali in this state is the time to rejoice and look forward to a bright future. People from all communities take part in this festival to make it a grand success. The lighting of lamps in this festival signifies the attainment of peace, health, love and knowledge. The rich and trading classes specially consider it as their own festival. In the remote villages of the state cattle are adorned and worshipped by the peasants as they form the main source of their livelihood. This festival also marks the anniversary of Guru Hargobindji who was released from the prison of Gwalior fort.

Gurparav-

This festival is celebrated by the Sikhs to commemorate their gurus. During the whole year two major Guruparavs are held. The first Guruparav is held in the month of Kartika or in the months of October/November to celebrate the teachings of the pioneer of the Sikh religion. The second Guruparav is held in the month of Pausa or in the months of December/January to celebrate the birth of Guru Gobind Singh. On these days the Guru Granth Sahib is taken out in a procession in which the locals participate with much enthusiasm. The martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur and Guru Arjun Dev are also observed on both the days of this special festival. Non-stop religious discourses and recitations of the granths are held. Free meals also known as `langar` are served to the rich and poor alike.

Tika-

This festival is celebrated in the month of Kartika according to the Hindu calendar or on the months of October/November according to the English calendar. The women-folk put a tika of saffron and rice grains on the foreheads of their brother to ward the evils out of their lives. They also dress up in fine costumes to perform the auspicious ceremony. While feeding their brothers with home made sweets they also sing and pray for their longevity and prosperity. In return the brother also reward them with some gifts or money as a token of love and affection.

Teej-

This festival is celebrated on Sawan Sudi. It is celebrated to welcome the season of monsoon and is one of the popular festivals of Punjab. After the first showers of rainy season, a small insect called Teej in the state of Punjab comes out from the earth`s soil. All the girls are excused from the household chores on this day as they apply henna on their hands and feet. They also receive new clothes from their parents. The puja or the worship is performed early in the morning and the `baya`, which consists of various foodstuffs, is placed on a platter at the place of worship. A decorated `chowk` or square is also kept over there and an idol or picture of Goddess Parvati is installed. Different cultural performances are kept exclusively for the evening.

Basant Panchami-

This festival is celebrated in Punjab with as much pomp and fervor as that of the whole country in the months of January/February according to English calendar. In this state Basant Panchami is celebrated to welcome the season of spring after the dead and decay of the winter season. The fragrance of the yellow mustard flowers creates a sensation of romantic vive infecting the spirit of the Punjabis. People welcome the change and celebrate this joyous festival with much ebullience and exuberance. They indulge themselves completely in the festive mood by wearing yellow outfits and holding grand feasts. The main attraction of this festival is kite flying.

Muktsar Fair-

The festival is in commemoration of a battle fought in 1705-06 by Guru Gobind Singh against the imperial forces of the Moguls and pays tribute to theforty Sikhs who achieved martyrdom on this day. One of the largest Sikh fairs, it is held in the middle of January on the Makar Sankranti day. The festival is spread over three days. On the first day worshippers bathe in the sacred tank. The second day is a procession  to the three holy mounds which lie to the north-west of the town, namely, Rikab Sahib, Tibbi Sahib, and Mukhwanjana Sahib. Rikab Sahib, commemorates the spot where the Guru's stirrup broke. Tibbi Sahib crowned with a Gurudwara, is the mound where Guru Gobind Singh stood and aimed his arrows at the imperial forces. At Mukhwanjana Sahib, Guru is said to have cleaned his teeth with a tooth-stick. After offering prayers here, the devotees then return to visit Tambu Sahib where the Guru's tent was pitched before the fight started, Shahid Ganj, which is the samadhi of the forty martyrs, and Darbar Sahib, where the Guru held his darbar after the cremation of the slain.

Rural Sports-

This national Fair is held in February at Kila Raipur, 6 km from Ludhiana. This sports meet epitomises the special Punjabi bonhomie and the spirit of never say die. Ingenious tournaments likes Bullock carts and animal races, awe inspiring feats of strength and danger, the traditional wrestling, cock-fighting, kabaddi and jumps and races are the highlights of the festival. The meet culminates in the electrifying dances of Punjab, the giddha and the bhangra.

Hola Mohalla-

The spring season is ushered in by the Hola Mohalla at Anandpur Sahib. The Festival has great historical significance as it observes the militarization of Sikh followers into the order of Nihangs (warriors) by Guru Gobind at Anandpur Sahib. Celebrated on the day after Holi, the festival makes for a thrilling spectacle. Martial arts like archery, sword fencing, skillful horse-riding, tent-pegging, and the deft handling of other martial contraptions are displayed by the Nihangs. The festivities close with a ceremonial procession taken through the township and culminate in langar(The Common Kitchen).

The Rauza Sharif 'Urs'-

Rauza Sharif ‘Urs’ is celebrated in the memory of great Sufi Saint Sheikh Ahmad Farooqui Sirhindi on May 31 every year. Sheikh Ahmed was the most eminent of Khawaja Baqi Billah’s disciples. He was the fourth of the seven sons of Sheikh Abdul Ahmad Farooqi Naqshbandi and was born in Sirhind. People of all faiths pay their homage at the shrine of Rauza Sharif that is located on the Fatehgarh Saheb-Bassi Pathana road in the vicinity of Fatehgarh Sahib Gurudwara.

Chhapar Fair-

This three-day fair commemorates the descent of the Gugga Pir, a Chauhan Rajput, into the bosom of Mother Earth along with his steed. According to the legend, he possessed special powers over all kinds of snakes.The fair is celebrated at Gugge di Marhi, a big shrine built in his memory that has a reputation for curing people of snake bites. Earth is scooped up seven times to invoke Gugga Pir for protection against snakes. People sing folk songs and perform folk dances. The fair is held on the Anand Chaudas on the 14th day of the bright half of Bhadon.

Haribhallabh Sangeet Mela-

Organized every year from December 27-30, this music festival honors the memory of Swami Hariballabh, a famous saint musician. Swami Haribhallabh belonged to a rich family from Hoshiarpur and renounced the material way of life to become a disciple of Swami Tulja Gir who initiated him into the art of music. Held at the saint’s shrine on the banks of Devi Talab, near Jalandhar, the event attracts classical singers and musicians of repute from all over the country.

Shaheedi Jor Mela-

Shaheedi divas occupies a special place in the Sikh history as it pays homage to the two tender Sahibzadas (princes) of Guru Gobind—Zorawar Singh (9 years) and Fateh Singh (7 years) who were cremated alive in the walls on their refusal to convert to Islam during the reign of the Emperor Aurangzeb. The Fatehgarh Sahib Gurudwara is the holy spot where the two brave children died for the noble cause.

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